Cognitive Enhancement Therapy

Cognitive Enhancement Therapy (CET) is a holistic, integrated program for treating the cognitive and psycho-social impairments found in chronic psychotic disorders. Along with coaching and group treatment experiences, CET includes a computer-based cognitive training module designed to improve core cognitive functioning in areas of attention, memory, and problem solving. Since CET is an integrated treatment approach, each piece is intended to complement the other treatment modalities. As a result, Cognitive Enhancement Therapy is a more intensive approach to the remediation of cognitive difficulties.

Company: CET Training, LLC
Classification: Cognitive remediation
Targeted conditions: schizophrenia
Target demographic: Adult
Special provider necessary: Yes (No resources yet available for locating providers)
Non-English language version available: Not yet
Where to find out more: http://www.cognitiveenhancementtherapy.com/


Expert ratings and reviews

PsyberGuide rating: The research and support basis of the product

Total score: 10/14

subscores
Basis of research: 3/3
Source of funding for the research: 2/2
Specificity of proposed intervention: 3/3
Number of consumer ratings: 1/3
Product advisory support:  1/1
Software support:  unknown

date of rating: June 2016

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Quality scores range from 1 to 5, where 5 is the maximum score

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Research on the product

Below is a list of some of the published research supporting this product. Click the links if you are interested in reading the full articles (unfortunately, you may need to pay for some of them).

  1. Hogarty, G.E., Flesher, S., Ulrich, R., Carter, M., Greenwald, D., Pogue-Geile, M., Kechavan, M., Cooley, S., DiBarry, A. L., Garrett, A., Parepally, H., & Zoretich, R. (2004). Cognitive enhancement therapy for schizophrenia: Effects of a 2-year randomized trial on cognitive and behavior. Archives of General Psychiatry, 61(9), 866-876.
    • “Deficits in social cognition and neurocognition are believed to underlie schizophrenia disability.”
    • “Many cognitive deficits and related behaviors of patients with stable schizophrenia are improved when sufficient exposure to relevant rehabilitation is provided.”
  2. Hogarty, G.E. & Flesher, S. (1999). Practice principles of cognitive enhancement therapy for schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 25(4), 693-708.
  3. Eack, S. M. (2012). Cognitive Remediation: A New Generation of Psychosocial Interventions for People with Schizophrenia. Social Work,57(3), 235-246. doi:10.1093/sw/sws008
    • “Cognitive enhancement therapy is a significant advance in cognitive remediation for schizophrenia and uses a unique holistic approach that extends beyond traditional neuro-cognitive training to facilitate the achievement of adult social-cognitive milestones and broader functional recovery.”
    • “However, what has also emerged from this evidence is that the isolated short-term remediation of limited domains of neurocognition is unlikely to translate into meaningful improvements in functional recovery in the condition. Rather, long-term and integrative approaches that take a holistic view of individuals and their recovery, such as CET, appear to be needed to realize the potential functional benefits of cognitive remediation.”
    • “Evidence to date has supported the use of cognitive remediation in community and social work practice settings in combination with pharmacotherapy and other psychosocial treatments.”
  4. Kurtz, M.M. (2003). NeuroCognitive Rehabilitation for Schizophrenia. Current Psychiatry Reports, 5(4), 303-310.
  5. Eack, S. M., Pogue-Geile, M. F., Greenwald, D. P., Hogarty, S. S., & Keshavan, M. S. (2011). Mechanisms of functional improvement in a 2-year trial of cognitive enhancement therapy for early schizophrenia. Psychological Medicine41(6), 1253-1261. doi:10.1017/S0033291710001765
    • “Cognitive rehabilitation has emerged as an effective treatment for addressing cognitive impairments and functional disability in schizophrenia…”
    • “Improvements in neurocognition and social cognition that result from cognitive rehabilitation are both significant mediators of functional improvement in early course schizophrenia.”
  6. Lewandowski, K. E., Eack, S. M., Hogarty, S. S., Greenwald, D. P., & Keshavan, M. S. (2011). Is cognitive enhancement therapy equally effective for patients with schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder?. Schizophrenia Research125(2-3), 291-294. doi:10.1016/j.schres.2010.11.017
  7. Eack, S. M., Hogarty, G. E., Greenwald, D. P., Hogarty, S. S., & Keshavan, M. S. (2011). Effects of cognitive enhancement therapy on employment outcomes in early schizophrenia: Results from a 2-year randomized trial. Research on Social Work Practice21(1), 32-42. doi:10.1177/1049731509355812
    • “Individuals treated with CET were significantly more likely to be competitively employed, had greater earnings from employment, and were more satisfied with their employment status by the end of treatment compared to EST recipients.”
    • “CET can help facilitate employment in early schizophrenia by addressing the cognitive impairments that limit functioning in the disorder. Inclusion of cognitive rehabilitation in social work practice can support more optimal functional recovery from schizophrenia.”
  8. Eack, S. M., Greenwald, D. P., Hogarty, S. S., & Keshavan, M. S. (2010). One-year durability of the effects of cognitive enhancement therapy on functional outcome in early schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Research120(1-3), 210-216. doi:10.1016/j.schres.2010.03.042
    • “Previous research has shown that the early application of Cognitive Enhancement Therapy (CET) can improve neurocognitive and social-cognitive deficits in the early course of the disorder, and ultimately reduce the substantial functional disability that these patients experience.”
    • “These findings support the durability of CET effects on functional outcome in the early course of schizophrenia, and point to the potential of cognitive rehabilitation to have a lasting impact on the early trajectory of the disorder.”


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